August 22, 2019 posted by

More important than knowing the works beforehand is knowing the mechanics of composition and recomposition, and the good practical musician actually recomposes–composes again in each new performance–sometimes helped by a written record, such as a tablature, or a musical recording, but never restrained by those. Both types of instruments coexist still today in Portugal and Brazil, although the five- course viola displays a large number of regional variants, in matters such as number of frets, body shape and materials, stringing, and tunings. Should someone be allowed to make corrections in the musical text? In the sound hole, framed by ebony and boxwood inlaid, there are signs that there was a rose. After the mid-seventeenth century the mixed form–alfabeto and Italian tablature–was the main system in use also in Spain. Another player, Francisco Rodrigues Penteado, originally from Pernambuco, had a somewhat less pious story, which still reveals the interest of the wealthy families of the colony in some kind of viola-based musical instruction: Other evidence, such as the calligraphy, repertory, and musical concordances, also points to a compilation period between these years.

Gil Vicente cc depicts in his plays several characters singing and accompanying themselves on the viola. The designation machete for a small type of viola begins to appear in the late eighteenth century, and as many musical dictionaries suggest, the term most likely refers to the machinho itself. Lamare le Gras], 2r: Stein, Songs of mortals, dialogues of the gods: The viola was the most frequently mentioned musical instrument in sixteenth- century Portuguese sources. The term quilombo might mean a fortress, or hidden place in the woods, where runaway slaves used to find refuge. The Iberian popular dances, however, were always targets of reproach from both religious and secular authorities.

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Cambridge University Press, There were bandurra players also well regarded as song composers. If some subitles these indications may refer simply to the style of those settings, there are pieces actually drawn from Italian sources. Although the three codices present a fair number of Iberian dance-types, from the time the Coimbra codex was compiled to the more recent Conde de Redondo codex one sees a decline of those forms in the face luusitana imported models, such as the minuet and, to a lesser extent, the contredanse.

The transition from the standard seventeenth-century guitar repertory seen in the Coimbra and Gulbenkian tablatures to this repertory of Portuguese love songs and French dances is exemplarily illustrated in the so-called Count of Redondo’s book, a third volume of intabulated music for the viola, possibly from the second or third decade of the eighteenth century P-Ln F.

A single, careful copyist seems to have copied the music from folios 1r to 15v, and 29r to 33v. Several fantasias, caprichos, and batalhas of the Coimbra codex are based on Italian models.


It also illustrates a typical style of plectrum playing, with a predominance of melodic lines interspersed with a few chords, but with very little subtitlse no polyphony at all see example 2. That viola still bears five courses–the fourth and fifth courses had three strings each, instead of two.

Instituto Nacional do Livro,vol. They seek good fortune, they say, One has not seen such a folly! Libro de musica para vihuela intitulado Orphenica lyra.

Canzion Franzesa [harp]; E-Mn M. Aimable Vainqueur; E-Mn M. If in one year he was shipwrecked, taken prisoner, even sold as a slave, in another year he had enough resources to help St. Some contemporaries of Mattos, however, were not as enthusiastic–one of his rivals used to call him a “pirate of the others’ verses.

By immersing themselves in the musical literature of that time, they will be able to apply to the Portuguese repertory rhythmic solutions found in Spanish, Italian, and Mexican sources, and to make their own decisions in matters of repetitions, and improvised sections–in other words, learning by doing it. The historian Luiz Edmundo, in O Rio de Janeiro no tempo dos Vice-Reis, asserted that the sarambeque used to be danced in eighteenth-century Rio de Janeiro, but he did not disclose his sources of information.

Less research has been done specifically on the musical interactions between Portugal and its colonies. Sola una, que llaman la chacona. What type of pieces would these be, and in what context were they played? Even if the soundboard was replaced in the eighteenth century, as the catalogue suggests, the instrument was still in use for some time after that, for, as Morais observes, the soundboard presents signs of wearing down near the bridge, where the player would rest the little finger.

In recent years, many recordings by well-informed musicians illustrate this departure from the notion of an ideal and absolute work of art, in search of a more creative and living approach, much more consistent with what is known about seventeenth- and early-eighteenth-century musical practices.

Peixoto da Pena, for example, is said to have impressed the court of Carlos V by playing consonantly on an out-of-tune instrument: The missing rhythmic information could also be obtained from an instructor or fellow guitar player.

He says they are of seven pontos [shoe laces, viola frets], But, since I play rasgado [strumming; ripping], I do not engage in these pontos [viola frets; issues], Nor do I leave this agreement.

Academia Brasileira de Letras, Auto do fidalgo aprendiz. I am especially indebted to Prof. Thus, it is no coincidence that one of the dance types or forms in the Coimbra and Gulbenkian codices is precisely the marinheira a sailor’s dance or songand that a rhythm with the same name can be found still today among the black population in Peru.


Nevertheless, Esses’s three-volume study is probably the most comprehensive anthology of Spanish instrumental dances. Likewise, through a careful study of primary sources, a performer might approach this repertory as an opportunity to exercise his or her own autonomy, accepting or rejecting editorial interventions and by developing, rearranging, adding, or suppressing elements, the same way musicians of other times used to do.

Francisco Manuel de Melo, Carta de guia de casados Lisbon: InFuenllana 2 Ibid. Skip to main content.

UMI Research Press, See chapter 2 for more details. Facts on File, Thanks to the pioneering work of several performers, researchers, and publishers in the last years, the repertory of guitar and guitar-related instruments from the sixteenth to early eighteenth centuries is finally earning a place more compatible with the importance the instrument and its players had in the genesis and development of so many musical forms and styles. Roman monody, cantata, and opera from the circles around Cardinal Montalto.

The Coimbra volume, which includes a large number of fantasias, besides works by Ennemond Gaultier cDomenico Pellegrini publ. Head and fretboard in ebony are inlaid with the same triple fillets that circle the peg holes, which are dorsal and follow the fingerboard in a winding design.

Clarendon Press, Voyage autour du monde. The sea into which I have thrown this book is fittingly the kingdom of Portugal, which is the sea of music–since [there] they esteem and also understand it so much.

In addition to that, none of the gandus presents anything similar to the perpetual arpeggiation found in the earliest lundus. The only Portuguese musical setting–in the Gulbenkian codex, entitled Matachim de la Reyna f. Brito, Manuel Carlos de. Already by the mid-sixteenth century, Juan Bermudo and Miguel de Fuenllana described a type of plucked instrument with five courses of strings.

However, the harmonies and the cadential approaches seem close to those of dances of supposedly North-African influence, such as the fandango, with which the lundu shared some choreographic features. Aqvi se contiene vna xacara nveva [ In the next century the meaning would gradually narrow to comprise only instruments with the body rantasia in the shape of a figure eight.